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  1. #31
    Joined
    Dec 2000
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    Canada
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    714

    Post ***NETWORK FAQ POST*** (LATEST UPDATE!)

    **I decided to combine the first 3 updates, in order to allow viewers to see the first part of the intro FAQ section [Networking Basics], without having to filter through this thread. Also, Klondike advised me to cut down on the technical babble. I agree, and the "KIS (Keep It Simple)" changes will be implemented once the first section of the FAQ is completed (eg. all the definitions have been written out).**

    ***NETWORKING FAQ POST***
    FAQ Section: Networking Basics [Hardware & Software]
    FAQ Topic: Networking hardware
    FAQ Content: Device definitions
    Content Specifics: repeaters, hubs, switches, routers, gateways, UTP, STP, cross-over cable, straight-thru cable, and RJ-45 connector [Definitions]


    Q. What is a repeater?
    A. A network device which reads-in the incoming signal, and simply amplifies it in order to increase the maximum distance between nodes. For instance, the maximum distance between nodes on a standard Ethernet network is 100m, however, a repeater may be used at the end of the segment to attach two cables together, and extend the maximum distance by another 100m.
    There are two types of repeaters: Standard repeaters simply amplify the incoming signal exactly as it looked coming in; Store-and-forward repeaters read-in the signal to a buffer, perform and error-check, and then re-construct and amplify the incoming signal.

    Q. What is a Hub?
    A. A networking device, which acts as a central access point, to which multiple devices/nodes/computers connect to to send/receive data to/from each other across the network. Hubs operate using a shared architecture, where only one device may talk on the network at any given time.
    There are two types of hubs: Passive-hubs simply forward the incoming signal, exactly as received, to all other ports on the device; Active hubs, also called multi-port repeaters, read-in the incoming signal to a buffer, perform an error-check, and then re-transmit the signal to all other ports on the device.
    Switched technology has since replaced the hub concept.

    Q. What is a switch?
    A. Unlike a hub, a switch forwards packets only to one port: the one on which the destination device/node/computer resides. It is able to accomplish this by keeping a SAT (Source Address Table) of each MAC address and its port (...knows which MAC addresses reside on which ports).
    When the switch receives a packet, it reads the destination address and then establishes a temporary, direct-circuit, connection between the source port and the destination port. After the packet is sent, the connection is terminated.
    If a switch receives a packet that has a destination address that is not in the SAT (eg. when the switch is first turned on, or when another computer is added to the network), it will send the packet to every port in a process called flooding (just like a hub does normally). When the destination computer responds, the switches takes not of which port the response came from, as well as the MAC address of the responding system, and adds it to the SAT.
    Switches are much faster than hubs because multiple computers can access the switch simultaneously, as well as datagrams are not usually flooded to all ports (which takes up precious bandwidth).

    Q. What is a Gateway (strictly speaking)?
    A. A Gateway is generally the interface point between 2 dissimilar systems (ie. 2 separate networks).
    For the purposes of a home network, the point at which your internal LAN interfaces the WAN (Internet) is the gateway. For most of you, this point of contact is your your hardware-Internet Gateway/Router (ie. Linksys), or a separate computer with two LAN cards (one connecting to the cable, DSL, or other WAN link; one connecting to the rest of the internal network through a hub or switch) running Gateway software (ie. Sygate).
    **However, it is important to understand that a gateway does not have to perform NAT, or act as a router. For instance, a gateway can simply act as a translator between two separate protocols. Let's assume you would like to connect a computer running TCP/IP with a computer running only IPX/SPX. Although this would not be the most intelligent setup, it could be accomplished using a gateway. The gateway would be acting as the interface between TCP/IP and IPX/SPX. In this case, no routing functions would be performed, and only simple translation between the protocols would be taking place.


    Q. What is a router (strictly speaking)?
    A. A router is basically a piece of software/hardware that controls the path of data through a series of separate networks The router will basically look at information contained within a packet and send it in the correct direction. Routers have to be gateways, because they are always acting as an interface between two or more separate networks (or IP subnets at the very least). However, the act of routing packets has nothing to do with being a gateway. Depending on what software protocols the router supports (ie. IP, IPX, AppleTalk, etc.), it simply determines the most efficient path to the destination machine, and forwards the packets through that path. This is accomplished by knowing exactly what the entire network looks like. Accomplishing this can be complicated, and therefore routers must communicate with one another using a series of various techniques and protocols. I will not go into the complicated description of how routers functions here, because it goes beyond the scope of this FAQ.
    ***If you would like to find out more about routers, visit www.cisco.com, and do search in their knowledge-base. CISCO provides an excellent, but complicated, resource on all networking equipment. Who better to ask than the creators themselves??
    ***Regardless of whether or not you choose to further read-up on routing, at least now you will have an understanding of what a router does, and how gateways may not always be classified as routers.
    ***One more important concept to understand is that a router is software. It can be defined as a program, or series of programs, having the capability to look at varies pieces of data, analyze them, and determine optimal methods of sending data across a network. When you purchase a CISCO router, buying routing software that is running on its own dedicated hardware.

    Q. What does UTP stand for, and what is it?
    A. UTP stands for 'Unshielded Twisted-Pair'. UTP cabling is commonly found in most Ethernet networks. Chances are, if you are running a home network, you are usuing UTP. The term 'twisted pair' simply refers to how the small wires inside the cable are twisted (4 pairs of two). The term 'unshielded' simply refers to the fact that, other than the basic cable covering, there is no other insulation, such as foil, helping to prevent interference, cross-talk, etc, on the wires.
    UTP comes rated at various standards: CAT1, CAT2, CAT3, CAT4, CAT5, and the newer, but not yet released, CAT6. CAT5 is the most recognized, and popular class, because it supports speeds up to 100Mbps, with distances of up to 100m. If you run a network at home, most likely you are using CAT5 UTP.

    Q. What does STP stand for, and what is it?
    A. STP stands for 'Shielded Twisted-pair'. STP cabling is not commonly found in Ethernet networks, although it can be used if necessary (usually found in Token-Ring networks). The term 'shielded' refers to the metallic foil insulator that is wrapped around the 4 pairs of wires. The insulator is surrounded by the normal plastic cable covering covering, found on UTP. STP can extend itself over longer distances than UTP, because it is not as prone to interference or cross-talk. However, STP is more expensive than STP, and certain precautions must be taken when installing it, as it can represent a fire hazard.

    Q. What is an "RJ-45" connector?
    A. An RJ-45 connector is the interface found in most twisted-pair Ethernet networks. An RJ-45 connector looks very similar to a normal phone connector (RJ-11), except that it is bigger, and consists of 8 points of connection as opposed to 4. If you are running a network at home, chances are you are using CAT5 Ethernet cable with RJ-45 connectors.

    Q. What is a "straight-thru" cable, and where do I use it?
    A. A straight-thru cable is a standard twisted-pair Ethernet cable, that will connect a PC or other device (such as a printer) to a hub or switch. The term 'straight-thru' simply refers to the way the 4 pairs of wires are setup and configured inside the cable itself. See the "Making straight-thru cable" HOW-TO for details.

    Q. What is a "cross-over" cable, and where do I use it?
    A. A cross-over cable is standard twisted-pair Ethernet cable, that will connect one PC directly another PC, without using a hub or switch. It can also be used to connect two hubs or switches together directly, if the second hub or switch does not have an 'uplink' port available. The term 'cross-over' simply refers to the way the 4 pairs of wires inside setup and configured inside the cable itself. See the "Making cross-over cable" HOW-TO for details.
    CNS, A+, Network+, Server+
    Next up, MCP: Windows 2K3 Server, Exchange 2K3, SQL 2K

    Primary Workstation: AMD Athlon64 3000+ | Biostar IDEq 200P | 2 x 512 MB ULTRA DDR433 PC3500 CAS 2-2-2-6 | 1 x 120 GB Maxtor UDMA-133 8 MB cache | PNY NVIDIA GeForceFX 5900 400 core, 850 memory w/VIVO | NEC Black DVD-+RW/CD-RW 8x4x16x, 32x16x32x | Sony Black 1.44 MB Floppy Drive | Microsoft Windows XP SP1 (...anxiously awaiting stable version of Windows XP64)

    Home Server: AMD K6-2 333@400 | 256MB PC-133@100 3-3-3 | ST Labs PCI IDE RAID Controller | 2 x 15GB Maxtor 7.2K RPM UDMA-100 RAID1 | GeForce2 MX 32MB | Mitsumi 4x4x8 CD-RW | Win2K Server SP3, running DHCP, DNS, RAS, and Terminal Services (in remote admin mode)

    Laptop: Compaq Presario 910CA | AthlonXP 1500+ | Mobile Radeon IGP320 | 256MB DDR-266 | 30GB Fujitsu 4.2K RPM UDMA-100 | 8x8x8x24 DVD/CD-RW | Microsoft Windows XP SP1

  2. #32
    Joined
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    Minnesota
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    680
    Soulstice, "I will also be posting a list of useful knowledge-base websites, that focus specifically on networking. " Add this one to the list plz http://www.practicallynetworked.com/index.htm

  3. #33
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    California
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    Well, as near as I can tell I never mentioned port forwarding, flooding or anything else in this thread, but as long as we are on the topic for whatever reason I think we should keep the subjects to hardware that the majority of readers here actually have, or wish they had. Gigabit ethernet is nice, but if I had that kind of money I would plunk it down on a Tyan Thunder K7, as I am sure most people in these forums would. Or at least a new rig... As far as the subjects of floods go, anything short of a router will forward floods by default. That doesn't matter much in your home networking environment either though so its pretty much irrelevant.

    On the news front, I moved apartments and that put me out of the DSL range. Until I get a cable modem or (God help me) 56K, I am not going to be able to post much. I have most of the Securing Windows 2000 FAQ put down on disk, but I am having trouble finding time during work hours to post it. It will be long, but security isn't something you can cover in a couple of questions and answers. Maybe we should file this one under the "read it if you dare" section. I am working on cutting it down to make it as painless as possible, but the thing runs 4 pages in single space, Times New Roman size 12. As you can see I have some work to do and I am not sure how much smaller or concise I can make it.
    (AIRBORNE: When it absolutely has to get destroyed overnight. GO 82nd!)

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  4. #34
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    IL
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    da186

    sorry to hear about the connection to the net that is a bummer.....I am only at 26400bhps on mine, one thing of living in the outback....lol....


    To all,

    I thought the purpose of this was to make the FAQ for the home user.....I feel that if it gets to involved we will lose the reader and thus have one less person knowing what they want to know....

    I did a couple FAQ's already and tried to do them as user friendly as I can, though with me being new at this I feel that if I can understand it, most should.....

    So are we going to be high key and be overboard on the info and to tech savy, or somewhat low key though point blank for the home user first timer?

    If I am wrong let me know, only way to get things going

    Take care,

    Socom18E

  5. #35
    Joined
    Aug 2001
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    Tampa Bay, FL
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    1,577

    Hello All!!!

    OK I'm back from south america and I have the beginnings of a beginners FAQ. I'll post it below and wait for comments. I may make it a new website at faq.cain.cx I'm not sure. I guess I'll wait for comments.

    Please note that this is a work in progress and is in no means complete. I am simply posting what I have to see if I should continue.


    Network FAQ for beginners

    1. What does NETWORK mean? A network is simply two or more computers linked together.

    2. So why would I want a NETWORK? A network is designed so that users can share resources. For example two computers using one printer. The most common reason to network two or more computers together is the Internet. With new ‘High-Speed’ services such as Cable Modem and DSL users want to be able to have more than one computer or person using that resource at any given time.

    3. So…what do I need? For a basic network you will need a NIC (Network Interface Card) in each computer, a cable for each computer, and a concentrator (Hub, Switch). You will probably obtain all of these parts for under $100 US.

    4. What kind of cable do I need? If you are using a concentrator you will need a category 5 (Cat 5) patch cable. This is an Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable and can come in many colors. It has a modular plug on each end that looks like a telephone plug except bigger called an RJ 45 (RJ means Registered Jack (Registered with the FCC)). The cable will contain 4 pairs (two wires twisted together) of wires in four colors. The colors are not important but are white/blue, white/orange, white/green, and white/brown.


    5. OK, I have the parts, now what do I do with them? First you need to install the NIC’s in your computers (see installing hardware FAQ). Once the cards are installed set the concentrator up in a convenient spot and power it up. With both computers on plug one end of each cable into a port on the hub and the other end into the jack on the NIC of each computer. The link light should light up to tell you that there is connectivity between the two devices.


    6. The hardware is working, how do I get the computers to ‘talk’ to each other? You will need to use a networking protocol. The most common is TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Other common protocols are NETBeui (Net Bios Extended User Interface) used by windows workgroups although not needed for windows networks, and IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange) used by Novell Networks.

    7. How do I set up a simple TCP/IP configuration? You will need to assign an IP address to each computer. I like to use 192.168.0.0 for my networks. First I give the server the first IP address (192.168.0.1) with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 I then assign the other computers with subsequent addresses (192.168.0.2 0.3 0.4 etc.) To test the configuration use the Ping command.



  6. #36
    Joined
    May 2001
    Location
    Louisville, KY
    Posts
    890

    Thumbs up Moral support..

    [ technically and clerically useless, but..]
    impressed with the effort being made here..

    probly the trickiest part of this whole thing will be organization, or management..
    [the best 'managers' are not usually the all-stars or hall-of -fame contenders.. but the guys who had to struggle just to get into the minors..]

    so, just keep popping up with 'sections', maybe in accordance with a rough outline..

    and DECIDE how to deal with the REAL NEWBIE,
    OR IF YOU WANT TO DEAL WITH SOMEONE FOR WHOM: 'connect A to B without shorting out C.. may be the ultimate challenge..

    if so, a 'Jane, ••••, and Spot story' may be required..

    I am NOT being sarcastic [ more than usual ]: the DJ&S routine would apply to me...

    the contributors ought to be getting 'course credit', or at least- an opportunity to publish...
    ------
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    [ this is TERRIBLE- I FEEL THE NEED for more T-BIRDS !!!..]----RagingSteveK's Tbird Trophy hunt

    " All that's necessary for the forces of evil to win in the world is for enough good men to do nothing."- Edmund Burke


    " Crunch Away! But, play nice .."
    --RagingSteveK's mom

    ---
    1.2 AXIA DDR: 5.7,5.3,4.7 hrs [ AR:~0.0, 0.4, other] b4 PC2400..

    ---------
    RagingSteveK.. aka SloMo [R.I.P.], SloNoMo.. in cahoots with Casper_the_unfriendly: aka Paul
    long AMD, at times[ this is one of those times]
    ..Paul 'n Steve- guilty as charged

  7. #37
    Joined
    Dec 2000
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    Canada
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    Lightbulb We still need more volunteers....

    More help is needed on this FAQ. Obviously, much of the FAQ will be revised once the sections come to completion. For clarity and ease-of-understanding, I would also like to enroll the help of some network and OS editors.


    Please contact me if you are interested in helping out.
    CNS, A+, Network+, Server+
    Next up, MCP: Windows 2K3 Server, Exchange 2K3, SQL 2K

    Primary Workstation: AMD Athlon64 3000+ | Biostar IDEq 200P | 2 x 512 MB ULTRA DDR433 PC3500 CAS 2-2-2-6 | 1 x 120 GB Maxtor UDMA-133 8 MB cache | PNY NVIDIA GeForceFX 5900 400 core, 850 memory w/VIVO | NEC Black DVD-+RW/CD-RW 8x4x16x, 32x16x32x | Sony Black 1.44 MB Floppy Drive | Microsoft Windows XP SP1 (...anxiously awaiting stable version of Windows XP64)

    Home Server: AMD K6-2 333@400 | 256MB PC-133@100 3-3-3 | ST Labs PCI IDE RAID Controller | 2 x 15GB Maxtor 7.2K RPM UDMA-100 RAID1 | GeForce2 MX 32MB | Mitsumi 4x4x8 CD-RW | Win2K Server SP3, running DHCP, DNS, RAS, and Terminal Services (in remote admin mode)

    Laptop: Compaq Presario 910CA | AthlonXP 1500+ | Mobile Radeon IGP320 | 256MB DDR-266 | 30GB Fujitsu 4.2K RPM UDMA-100 | 8x8x8x24 DVD/CD-RW | Microsoft Windows XP SP1

  8. #38
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    714

    Also...

    ...Don't be shy about posting sites:


    For instance,
    www.ntcompatible.com ----> Excellent for Windows NT/2000/XP tweaking, optimizing, solving compatibility issues, troubleshooting, etc.

    www.helmig.com -----> Windows-based networking. Basically, go here if you have any problems!!!



    A site list will be included in the FAQ, as to provide reference to further enhance one's knowledge, or direct members to sites that can further help them achieve their networking/tweaking objectives.
    CNS, A+, Network+, Server+
    Next up, MCP: Windows 2K3 Server, Exchange 2K3, SQL 2K

    Primary Workstation: AMD Athlon64 3000+ | Biostar IDEq 200P | 2 x 512 MB ULTRA DDR433 PC3500 CAS 2-2-2-6 | 1 x 120 GB Maxtor UDMA-133 8 MB cache | PNY NVIDIA GeForceFX 5900 400 core, 850 memory w/VIVO | NEC Black DVD-+RW/CD-RW 8x4x16x, 32x16x32x | Sony Black 1.44 MB Floppy Drive | Microsoft Windows XP SP1 (...anxiously awaiting stable version of Windows XP64)

    Home Server: AMD K6-2 333@400 | 256MB PC-133@100 3-3-3 | ST Labs PCI IDE RAID Controller | 2 x 15GB Maxtor 7.2K RPM UDMA-100 RAID1 | GeForce2 MX 32MB | Mitsumi 4x4x8 CD-RW | Win2K Server SP3, running DHCP, DNS, RAS, and Terminal Services (in remote admin mode)

    Laptop: Compaq Presario 910CA | AthlonXP 1500+ | Mobile Radeon IGP320 | 256MB DDR-266 | 30GB Fujitsu 4.2K RPM UDMA-100 | 8x8x8x24 DVD/CD-RW | Microsoft Windows XP SP1

  9. #39
    Joined
    Feb 2001
    Posts
    425
    www.linuxdoc.org

    This is one of the best places to get information and docs about the Linux operating system.

    More will come from me with the Linux end..and probably BSD UNIX as well..though I have not contacted you yet Soulstice

  10. #40
    Joined
    Jun 2001
    Location
    AZ
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    2,034
    This is a good idea to start people off in the direction of typical home based networking.

    Even though I know this is mostly a hardware forum. It almost seems to be like it might be valuable to setup Networking and OS's as 2 seperate catagories with topics listed below each catagory in the forums. Then specific questions could be answered and organized.

    I would almost like to see a server section on the forums kinda like technet since it is so much harder to use than this forum. (when I say harder to use, I mean the amount of people there and the ability to track your posts) I'm sure all the rest of you guys with your MCSE (or getting your MCSE or I guess whatever networking certifications) wouldn't mind the occasional chat about specific servers.

    I know we are talking about FAQ's here not forum catagories. I just thought I might throw that in.
    http://dustsmoke.com/images/dustsmoke_logo.gif

  11. #41
    Joined
    Dec 2000
    Posts
    5,051
    Soulstice, just one thing to point out in the information on switches.

    When the switch doesn't find an address directly it dosen't flood to all ports, it simply sends for all ports except for the source port.

    A hub on the other hand (Unless a switched hub.) will send to all ports including the source port. Thats one of the reasons a switch is better in high traffic enviroments the a hub.

    Other then that good work.

  12. #42
    Joined
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    Canada
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    Thumbs up Thanks for the update Bryan!

    When I post the next update to the first section of the FAQ, I'll make sure to add in any corrections mentioned here.


    Thanks again.


    Soul
    CNS, A+, Network+, Server+
    Next up, MCP: Windows 2K3 Server, Exchange 2K3, SQL 2K

    Primary Workstation: AMD Athlon64 3000+ | Biostar IDEq 200P | 2 x 512 MB ULTRA DDR433 PC3500 CAS 2-2-2-6 | 1 x 120 GB Maxtor UDMA-133 8 MB cache | PNY NVIDIA GeForceFX 5900 400 core, 850 memory w/VIVO | NEC Black DVD-+RW/CD-RW 8x4x16x, 32x16x32x | Sony Black 1.44 MB Floppy Drive | Microsoft Windows XP SP1 (...anxiously awaiting stable version of Windows XP64)

    Home Server: AMD K6-2 333@400 | 256MB PC-133@100 3-3-3 | ST Labs PCI IDE RAID Controller | 2 x 15GB Maxtor 7.2K RPM UDMA-100 RAID1 | GeForce2 MX 32MB | Mitsumi 4x4x8 CD-RW | Win2K Server SP3, running DHCP, DNS, RAS, and Terminal Services (in remote admin mode)

    Laptop: Compaq Presario 910CA | AthlonXP 1500+ | Mobile Radeon IGP320 | 256MB DDR-266 | 30GB Fujitsu 4.2K RPM UDMA-100 | 8x8x8x24 DVD/CD-RW | Microsoft Windows XP SP1

  13. #43
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    714

    Thumbs up

    http://www.jsiinc.com ------> Windows NT/2000/XP Hints, tips, and registry hacks. Excellent site for leanring how to configure Windows to your liking.


    CNS, A+, Network+, Server+
    Next up, MCP: Windows 2K3 Server, Exchange 2K3, SQL 2K

    Primary Workstation: AMD Athlon64 3000+ | Biostar IDEq 200P | 2 x 512 MB ULTRA DDR433 PC3500 CAS 2-2-2-6 | 1 x 120 GB Maxtor UDMA-133 8 MB cache | PNY NVIDIA GeForceFX 5900 400 core, 850 memory w/VIVO | NEC Black DVD-+RW/CD-RW 8x4x16x, 32x16x32x | Sony Black 1.44 MB Floppy Drive | Microsoft Windows XP SP1 (...anxiously awaiting stable version of Windows XP64)

    Home Server: AMD K6-2 333@400 | 256MB PC-133@100 3-3-3 | ST Labs PCI IDE RAID Controller | 2 x 15GB Maxtor 7.2K RPM UDMA-100 RAID1 | GeForce2 MX 32MB | Mitsumi 4x4x8 CD-RW | Win2K Server SP3, running DHCP, DNS, RAS, and Terminal Services (in remote admin mode)

    Laptop: Compaq Presario 910CA | AthlonXP 1500+ | Mobile Radeon IGP320 | 256MB DDR-266 | 30GB Fujitsu 4.2K RPM UDMA-100 | 8x8x8x24 DVD/CD-RW | Microsoft Windows XP SP1

  14. #44
    Joined
    Sep 2001
    Location
    Kansas City, MO
    Posts
    77
    I just started reading this post and wondered if anyone had any desire to have some Solaris knowledge thown in? I can help with that part, but not much else. More specifically, solaris on Sparc. however, I could probably dig up some stuff for Solaris on intel. That is, if anyone really gives a poo.

    --Erich
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  15. #45
    Joined
    Aug 2001
    Posts
    662
    My area of expertise lies mainly in routers and switches, and i focus primarily on Wan, IP, and Routing protocols.

    I work with routers on a day to day basis, so i guess if any help is needed for the faq, just toss me a section adn i'll go ahead and write it up.


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